Information Architecture (IA) includes everything from organizing library books to making information on a website searchable and findable. Librarians, archivists, data scientists, web designers, software engineers, and any other job that requires deciding how to maintain large amounts of information requires the practice of IA to some degree.
The first step in any information architecture project is correctly organizing and labeling relevant documents, pages, ideas, and things. Correct organization will form the backbone of navigation and site structure. Informative labels will communicate that organizational structure effectively to users.
Before selecting fonts, picking colors, and designing graphics, is it best to decide where on the screen that information and page elements will go. Mapping or sketching these elements out ensures that the page, once designed, will be useful. A wireframe is a low-fidelity map or sketch of a page, produced before it is fully designed.